Background: This is Finland
- Country name conventional long form: Republic of Finland (conventional short form: Finland, local long form: Suomen Tasavalta, local short form: Suomi)
- Area total: 338,145 sq km
- Land: 304,473 sq km
- Water: 33,672 sq km (CIA, 2007)
- Capital city: Helsinki
- Population- 5,238,460 (July 2007 est., CIA)
- Unemployment rate: 6,6% (CIA, 2007 est.)
- Finland’s Independence Day: December 6 (1917) (Finland at a Glance, 2005)
- Gross Domestic Product: Finland’s GDP is $210,5 billion (2007 CIA est.).
Finn 93.4 percent, Swede 5.7 percent, Russian 0.4 percent, Estonian 0.2 percent, Romany 0.2 percent, Sami 0.1 percent (CIA, 2007)
Finland is located in Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, the Gulf of Bothnia, and the Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia (CIA, 2007). Finland’s land border with Russia is also the eastern border of the European Union (Finland at a Glance, 2005)
Finnish 92 percent (official), Swedish 5.6 percent (official), other 2.4 percent (small Sami- and Russian-speaking minorities) (CIA, 2007)
Six provinces (läänit, singular - lääni); Aland, Etelä-Suomen Lääni, Itä-Suomen Lääni, Länsi-Suomen Lääni, Lappi, Oulun Lääni (CIA, 2007)
The Finnish currency unit is the euro. Finland was one of the first 12 European Union countries to start using euro cash in 2002 (Finland at a Glance, 2005)
Lutheran National Church 84.2 percent, Greek Orthodox in Finland 1.1 percent, other Christian 1.1 percent, other 0.1 percent, none 13.5 percent (CIA, 2005)
Due to its northern location, the four seasons of the year are very distinct. Finland’s climate consists of cold winters and warm summers. The mean annual temperature in the capital, Helsinki, is 5.3 degrees Celsius. In the far north, beyond the Arctic Circle, the sun does not set for about 73 days, which produces the white nights of summer. During the winter period of this same location, the sun remains below the horizon for 51 days, creating the polar night known in Finnish as kaamos (Finland at a Glance, 2005).
Timber, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, nickel, gold, silver, limestone (CIA, 2007)
Over three quarters of Finland’s surface area is covered by forests. It also has about 190,000 lakes and approximately that many islands as well (Finland at a Glance, 2005).
Age 15 and over can read and write, total population: 100% (2000 est.), male: 100%, female: 100% (CIA, 2007).
The geographical area that is now considered Finland was desired by both of its neighbors, Sweden and Novgorod (Russia) until the middle of the 12th century. Sweden received the majority of land in compliance with the peace treaty of 1323 with Novgorod, and Novgorod received only eastern Finland. Due to this separation of the land, the western and southern parts of Finland were connected to Sweden and the Catholic Church while the eastern section of Finland became part of the Russo-Byzantine world (Zetterberg, 2005). Major part of the Finnish landarea belonged to Sweden from the peacy treaty of 1323 until the so called War of Finland in 1808-1809.
The Swedish legal and social systems were introduced in Finland and the Finns were sent to battle fields along with the Swedish soldiers. Finland’s most important center was the town of Turku, founded in the middle of the 13th century. In 1362, Finns were given the right to send representatives to the election of the king in Sweden, and in the 16th century this right was extended to include representation in the Swedish Diet. The Reformation started by Luther in the early 16th century also encompassed Sweden and Finland. The Catholic Church lost out to the Lutheran faith in Scandinavia and Finland. This strengthened the Finnish-language culture and in 1548, the Bishop of Turku, Mikael Agricola (1510-1557) translated the New Testament into Finnish and thus created written Finnish (History of Finland, 2004).
In the 17th century the Swedes were appointed into high offices in Finland, which strengthened the position of the Swedish language in Finland (Zetterberg, 2005). Still today Swedish is an official language along with Finnish in Finland and about four percent of the population still speaks Swedish as their mother tongue.
In the 1808-1809 war between Russia and Sweden, Russia conquered Finland. Finland was joined as part of Russia in 1809 as an autonomous Grand Duchy http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Duchy_of_Finland(History of Finland, 2004). The Grand Duke was the Russian Emperor, whose representative in Finland was the Governor General. The Senate of Finland was the highest governing body of the Grand Duchy, and was composed of native Finns. From 1863 onwards the Diet of Finland convened regularly. In 1812, Helsinki was made the capital of Finland.
The autonomy of Finland was at first encouraged by the Russians in part due to the relatively developed governmental structures of Finland and in part as a deliberate policy of goodwill to win over the minds of the Finnish people. The autonomous status led to the fact that the Finnish national movement gained momentum. The Language Decree issued in 1863 by the Russian emperor Alexander II was the beginning of the process through which Finnish became an official language. The Conscription Act of 1878 gave Finland an army of its own (Zetterberg, 2005). The autonomy made it possible for the Finns to develop its own education system and get its own money (Finnish markka) too. Finnish literature, arts and music developed independently and the artists had already during this period active cultural connections of its own with Europe.
As governmental organizations developed in Russia, and unity of the empire became one of the leading objects of the Russian politics, clashes between Finnish and Russian governmental organizations grew frequent and lead to the attempted russification in 1899-1917. Finland nevertheless enjoyed a high degree of autonomy until its independence in 1917.
Conscription Act of 1878: On December 6, 1917, shortly after the October Revolution in Russia, Finland declared its independence (History of Finland, 2004 However, at the same time there was a Civil War in Finland. The so called Reds and Whites (parties of the left and right) were fighting and the leftwing parties staged a coup. The Civil War ended in May 1918, when the government troops won. Finland became a republic in the summer of 1919 and K.J. Stahlberg (1865-1952) was elected the first president (Zetterberg, 2005).
In 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union signed a non-aggression pact, which included a secret protocol relegating Finland to the Soviet Union. Finland refused to allow the Soviet Union to build military bases on its territory, the non-aggression pact of 1932 was revoked and the Soviet Union attacked Finland on November 30, 1939. The “Winter War ” ended in a peace treaty drawn up in Moscow on March 13, 1940, giving about 9 % of Finnish territory to Soviet Union mainly around the lade Ladoga in southeastern Finland (Zetterberg, 2005).
When Germany attacked the Soviet Union in the summer of 1941, Finland entered the so called ‘Continuation War’ with Soviet Union. The war ended in armistice in September 1944. In this treaty Finland ceded Petsamo on the Artic Ocean to Soviet Union.
In following years, Finland’s international position grew stronger. The Olympic Games were held in Helsinki in 1952. In 1955, Finland joined both the United Nations and the Nordic Council (Zetterberg, 2005).
Urho Kekkonen, who was elected president in 1956, worked to increase Finland’s position in foreign policy by pursuing an active policy of neutrality. After Kekkonen had ruled for about a quarter of a century he stepped down because of health problems and Mauno Koivisto was elected president in 1982.
In 1987, Finland became a full member of EFTA, European Free Trade Association (Lahelma, 2001). During this same year, the conservative National Coalition Party and the Social Democrats formed a majority government, which remained in power until 1991. After the 1991 election, the Social Democrats were left in opposition, and a new government was formed by the Conservatives and the Centre Party. The government was led by Esko Aho and he remained in office until 1995 (Zetterberg, 2005).
With the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Finland recognized Russia’s position as the successor and a treaty on good relations between the neighboring countries was signed in January 1992 (Zetterberg, 2005).
After Sweden submitted its application to the European Council, now the European Union, the importance for Finland to comply grew tremendously and in March 1992 Finland submitted its own application (Lahelma, 2001).
In the 1994 elections the process for presidential election changed and in the first round none of the candidates had an absolute majority.In the second round Martti Ahtisaari was elected the tenth president of the Republic of Finland with 54 percent of the votes (Zetterberg, 2005).
On March 1, 2000, Finland drafted a new constitution and according to this document political power rests with the people of Finland. On this same day a new president was elected, Tarja Halonen, the first female president in Finland, for a six-year term (Zetterberg, 2005). She was re-elected in January 2006.
Finland is a small country, but one with a great sense of national pride and strong cultural traditions. Finland is usually described as a typical European country, with some Scandinavian customs. Finns are generally more liberal, than their European counterparts, and have a relaxed view of socially acceptable behaviors. The Finnish feelings of pride and dignity for their country come from their various sporting accomplishments and a few military successes (Ojanen M., 2004).
Culture in Finland can best be described as a mix of Finnish and Swedish elements. The official language in Finland is Finnish, but the Swedish influence is so strong in the country that Finland has named Swedish as the second official language. The national religion in Finland is Lutheran (CIA, 2007). The main theory behind the religion of Lutheran is forgiveness. Lutherans believe that every person is born with the tendency to be selfish and only through the act of forgiveness and faith can one become one with the Lord (Fellowship, n.d).
A high level of education is another important factor in Finland. The average literacy rate, meaning Finns aged 15 and older, is 100 percent. Usually Finnish children complete nine levels of general education before moving on to either upper secondary school or vocational school. From there students have the option of moving on to a university (Ojanen J., 2005). Since 1992, a new category of educational institutions, polytechnics, was formed by linking together earlier intermediary vocational schools, and polytechnics, which has changed the situation in PR and communication education in the country (Lehtonen, 2004). Finland has been graded extremely well in Pisa-studies (PISA Programme for International Students Assessment) year after year.
It’s a common misconception that Finland is a very frigid land with a rural based economy. In fact, Finland has made a transition from a farm and forest economy, to a highly industrialized free-market society. The key economic base is currently manufacturing. Another interesting fact that most foreigners do not realize is the strong connection between the Finns and their mobile phones. Cellular use is extremely popular among the Finnish, as they are the developers of Nokia. As such, the Finns are excessively proud of their knowledge and expertise in the high-tech industry. Finland tends to be a progressive nation, with high levels of sexual equality among its people. Women are highly respected and treated fairly in the workplace. It is not uncommon to see gender-neutral terms in Finnish legal practice, in business, or in public policy (Alho, 2005).
The Finns are also extremely proud of their architecture, as well as their interest in music, folk poetry and mythology. They enjoy many leisure activities like walking, soccer, cycling or jogging, while many take part in the popular national sport, Pesäpallo Finnish baseball.
Their traditions include celebrating Christian holidays such as Christmas, Easter, and All Saints Day and non-Christian holidays such as New Year's Day, May Day and Midsummer Day. Midsummer Day is a festival with food and bonfires that celebrates non-Christian and somewhat Pagan ideas. May Day is a holiday that celebrates the labor movement and was later designated International Workers’ Day. It is now celebrated by many other countries as well except for the United States (Nieminen, 2005).
Sauna bathing is a very popular weekly or daily activity in Finland, like regular bathing in Western society. Most Finns own wood, electric or smoke saunas, and sauna bathing is a family oriented event. There are also public saunas for both sexes. The traditional method of sauna bathing is to sit in the nude, to fully allow the steam to penetrate the skin. Also, the Finns use bouquets of birch twigs to lightly pat the skin, which is said to cleanse the pores and relax the muscles. After a sauna bath, it is customary to shower or swim in a lake. The frequent transition from hot to cold temperatures is supposed to further relax the body. Ice swimming in frozen lakes is very natural in Finland, as well as ice fishing for sport in the winter (Ojanen M., 2005).
Basic cultural norms of Finland include some interesting customs and some surprising information. In Finland, there is an important emphasis on spoken conversation. The Finns talk little and when they do, they choose their words very carefully. Small talk is to be avoided if deemed unnecessary. Finns value speech highly, and verbal agreements are taken very seriously and considered binding. A persons title is not usually stressed in common situations, but preferably mentioned in business. The Finns are generally informal in most situations, except perhaps in academic settings (Alho, 2005).
A common theme in Finland is individualism. Many Finns throughout the country value their right to equal opportunity and being individuals. It usually takes a lot for the Finns to call you a friend. Therefore it is not surprising that they form surface relationships rather than in-depth ones. They typically have many acquaintances and only a few friends.
Finland is a country with only a moderate amount of discrimination. While discrimination is not entirely non-existent, Finland is still a country that tries to offer equal opportunities for everyone. Despite Finland’s efforts to allow individualism, however, it still is a country that values rules, laws and regulations. It is a country founded upon Christian values and pulls control over any uncertainty (Geert Hofstede, 2005).
The main issues that are affecting Finland are pollution and the excessive consumption of alcohol. Due to the country’s highly industrial economy, Finland faces the issue of controlling pollution. The increase of pollution in Finland has left the country with great concern about the increasing threat to its wildlife (CIA, 2005).
Alcoholism is not a serious problem in Finland, but the occurrence of excessive drinking is common, perhaps a result of 2004 tax cuts on heavy alcoholic beverages. The Scandinavian tradition includes a higher rate of drinking than other European countries, but recent public policies in Finland have tried to encourage drinking in moderation more focused in socially acceptable situations. Another startling statistic is that Finland has the second highest suicide rate in Europe. Possible reasons for this include alcoholism and drug abuse, illness and mental disorders, social exclusion, and difficult living circumstances. Also, scientists believe that the lack of sunlight in the winter months lowers the body’s levels of serotonin and other neurotransmitters and may have damaging effects on the brain. Since 1990, suicide prevention programs have reduced the suicide rate by 18 percent (Ojanen M., 2005).
Finland’s government structure consists of a Parliament (where sovereign power of the people lies), Government and the President of the Republic.
Finland drafted a new constitution on March 1, 2000 after many years of careful deliberation. According to the constitution, political power rests on the people of Finland, with special care taken to ensure that this power is not overrun by any institution. The Parliament is a direct representation of the people’s sovereign power over Finland. The new constitution established Parliament’s and Government’s power in relation to the President (The Constitution of Finland, 1999). Link to the Finnish constitution:www.om.fi/uploads/54begu60narbnv_1.pdf
Finland has a unicameral Parliament consisting of 200 seats, established by the Parliament Reform Act of 1906. Suffrage was given to both sexes over the age of 24. Currently, any citizen over the age of 18 may both vote and run for office. A republican constitution, which was adopted in 1918, established Parliament as the sovereign body of government, deriving its power from the people. The new Parliament Act of 1928 brought legislation in line with recent events (Parliament of Finland, n/d).
Parliament acts as the lawmaker in Finland, as well as delegate in the European Union. During plenary sessions, the body gathers to enact both ordinary and constitutional law. Whether bills are submitted by the Government, or by members of Parliament, they are discussed and voted on. After the preliminary debate, the bills are handed over to the appropriate committee within Parliament. A simple majority of votes decides whether the bill will become a law or not. A constitutional bill must be approved by two separate Parliamentary bodies, which means it must wait until a new body is elected and can vote on it to become law (Parliament of Finland, n/d).
Parliament also decides on the state budget. A proposal of the minister of finance is debated, and then handed over to the Finance Committee. Parliament later concludes the matter in a single meeting (Parliament of Finland, n/d).
There are 15 permanent special committees in the Parliament and the Grand Committee, which focuses mainly on EU affairs. Each committee has 17 members and nine alternate members, with the exception of Finance, Audit and Grand Committees. Their activities are generally closed to the press and to visitors, unlike plenary sessions (Parliament of Finland, n/d).
The President of the Republic
The president is elected by a direct popular vote every six years. Ms. Tarja Halonen, the current president, was elected on March 1, 2000 and reelected in 2006. Presidential candidates must be native born citizens, and presidents can only be elected for two consecutive terms. Nominations for candidates may come from parties with at least one seat in Parliament, or by a petition of 20,000 enfranchised citizens. The president makes €160,000 a year. The president instates public officials, works in the law making process (see above) and engages in international relations (Finland’s President, 2002).
Once a bill is passed in Parliament, it must be ratified by the President. The office has three months to ratify the bill, after which it is either considered lapse or redrafted by a majority vote and passed in Parliament without ratification (Election, 2002).
Appointing key officials is another responsibility of the president. Often nominated by other committees, the president appoints numerous public officials, including the Prime Minister and presidents and justices of the Supreme Court. In judicial appointments, the Government nominates candidates and the President chooses between them (Election, 2002).
The President also serves as Supreme Commander of the Defense Forces. This is one responsibility the president may delegate to another Finnish citizen. Responsibilities include issuing military orders without the recommendation of the Government. The President also has the authority to declare war (Election, 2002).
The Government (Council of State)
The Government of Finland consists of 20 ministers and the Prime Minister currently Matti Vanhanen. The Prime Minister is elected by the Parliament and appointed by the President . Elections were last held in March 2007. The parties represented in the Government are the Centre Party, the National Coalition Party, the Green League and the Swedish People’s Party. The Government Programme is a plan of action agreed by the parties participating in the Government and it sets out the main tasks facing the administration.
There are four permanent Cabinet Committees chaired by the Prime Minister. Ad hoc cabinet committees are called Ministerial Working Groups. There are 12 ministries in the Government, employing about 5,000 people. They decide which issues the Government will address
Finland has a highly industrialized, free-market economy with per capita output roughly that of the UK, France, Germany, and Italy. Its key economic sector is manufacturing - principally the wood, metals, engineering, telecommunications, and electronics industries. Trade is important; exports equal two-fifths of GDP. Finland excels in high-tech exports, e.g., mobile phones. Except for timber and several minerals, Finland depends on imports of raw materials, energy, and some components for manufactured goods. Because of the climate, agricultural development is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in basic products. Forestry, an important export earner, provides a secondary occupation for the rural population (CIA 2007). Finland’s economic structure displays a high level of regulatory transparency and supports foreign investments. andThe government controls healthcare and taxes. It also has some investments in industry such as energy, airlines, forestry and steel, of which it regards energy as strategic investment and which is not for sale. Interest rates are directly calculated and composed through the free-market. Officially, there is not a national minimum wage in Finland, but the business sectors generally agree on a standard minimum wage (Index of Economic Freedom, 2005).
The economy in Finland can best be described as stable and thriving. Despite facing financial crisis in the early 1990s, Finland is now a leader in economic success and is one of the most competitive markets in the world, a position that is followed by the United States (Gonzalez, 2002).
In 1995, Finland became a member of the European Union. Since then the country’s economy has soared due to their production of telecommunications. Finland is one of the leading providers of the internet and mobile phone industry, most notably with the company Nokia. Nokia, whose main offices are based in Finland, has grown to become an internationally known corporation. The company alone produces more exports in Finland than the paper industry, the former primary source of Finland’s economy (Export to Finland, 2005). The Finns are very proud of their manufacturing contributions to the global high-tech industry. The country has raised the standard for excellence and proficiency in communication technology, and the export of technical products is one of the most valuable commodities for the economy (Index of Economic Freedom, 2005). Finland ranked number one on the 2002 Global Information Technology Report. This is a mark of how well a country is viewed as being technologically advanced and how well developed their communications and technology networks are (Gonzalez, 2002).
Finland also uses its geographical location as a way to boost their country’s income. Finland’s location is between the east and west regions of the globe and so acts as a transportation channel to Russia. In fact, many foreign investors, including the United States, open transportation sectors in Finland (Export to Finland, 2005)
It is because of Finland’s free-trade market that the economy has been a huge success. The country prides itself on positive business practices and is open to foreign products and investments. Finland’s economy is not only growing, it is one of the strongest in the world (CIA, 2005).
Finland’s Top Companies
Please listed below find names of some Finnish companies who are world leaders in their field:
Elcoteq was founded in 1990 and is a global electronics manufacturing services (EMS) company focusing on communications technology customers and products.
Finnair was founded in 1923 and is one of the world's oldest operating airlines. Finnair's route network covers about 16 domestic and more than 50 international destinations.
F-Secure Corporation protects consumers and businesses against computer viruses and other threats from the internet and mobile networks.
Kone Corporation is one of the world’s leading elevator and escalator companies.
Marimekko was founded in 1951 and is a leading Finnish textile and clothing design company that designs, manufactures and markets high-quality clothing, interior decoration textiles, bags and other accessories under the Marimekko brand, both in Finland and abroad.
Nokia is the world leader in mobility driving the transformation and growth of the converging Internet and communications industries.
Outokumpu is an international stainless steel company. Outokumpu operates in some 30 countries and employs 8 000 people.
Patria is an internationally operating Aerospace and Defence Group with significant positions in the Baltic region.
Rapala was founded in 1936 and is a leading manufacturer of fishing lures.
SanomaWSOY is the leading media group in the Nordic region operating in versatile fields of media in over 20 European countries.
Stora Enso is an integrated paper, packaging and forest product company producing newsprint, magazine paper, fine paper, consumer board, industrial packaging and wood products. The Group operates on five continents.
Teleste Corporation is one of the world´s leading companies in the field of Broadband Access and Video Surveillance.
Vaisala develops, manufactures and markets products and services for environmental and industrial measurement. Vaisala´s markets are global.
- Bank of Finland
Bank of Finland was founded in 1811 and is Finland’s central bank and a member of the European System of Central Banks. ww.bof.fi
- Aktia Bank
Aktia was created at the beginning of the 1990s and is a bilingual Finnish savings bank. ww.aktia.fi
- Bank of Aland
Bank of Aland has roots in the Åland archipelago of Finland, but the bank has also operated successfully on the Finnish mainland since the mid-1980s. Today it has offices in five cities on the mainland. www.alandsbanken.fi
Handelsbanken was founded in 1871 and is a universal bank that provides services in the whole banking area. Handelsbbanken has its roots in Sweden. www.handelsbanken.fi
- Sampo Group
Sampo Group comprises of the leading P&C insurance company in the Nordic and Baltic countries and Sampo Life, a life insurer. www.sampo.fi
- Sampo Bank
Sampo Bank has specialized in investments and savings. Sampo Bank is part of the Danske Bank Group. www.sampobank.com
Nordea was founded in 2000 and is the leading financial services group in the Nordic and Baltic Sea region and operates through three business areas: Retail Banking, Corporate and Institutional Banking and Asset Management & Life. www.nordea.com
- OP-Pohjola Group
OP-Pohjola Group comprises 229 independent member cooperative banks and the Group's statutory central institution, OP Bank Group Central Cooperative. OKO Bank is the largest subsidiary of the Central Cooperative in Finland. www.op.fi; www.pohjola.fi
Finland has a myriad of media outlets. In a country with a population of 5.2 million people, the amount of media and communication outlets are impressive. There are 200 newspapers, 320 popular magazines, 2,100 professional magazines and 67 commercial radio stations, one of which is nationwide (Jyrkiäinen, 2004). There are three national public service radio channels in Finnish, two in Swedish, and one in the Sámi language, as well as three digital public service radio channels. In terms of the television industry, there are four national television channels, five digital public service television channels and three commercial channels. There are 12 feature films produced annually. There are 12,000 book titles and 12 million records sold each year. (Jyrkiäinen, 2004). There is a 78 percent internet broadband penetration among its households (Finnish Communications Regulatory Authority, 2007/ 3).
Newspaper readership in Finland ranks first in the European Union and third in the world with 532 copies sold per 1,000 people in 2003 (Jyrkiäinen, 2004). Of people age 12 and over, 87 percent of them read the newspaper daily. In 2004, 199 newspaper titles were published with a circulation of 3.2 million copies. Mergers and takeovers have allowed the largest media houses to gain market share. Daily newspapers are published by five newspaper chains: SanomaWSOY, Alma Media, Keskisuomalainen, Turun Sanomat Group and the Ilkka Group (Jyrkiäinen, 2004).
Television and Public Broadcasting
Television broadcasting in a global media network in Finland requires an operating license from the government (Television Broadcasting, 2005). The national government makes proposals regarding electronic communications to Parliament and grants operating licenses for local radio and local television. The Ministry of Transport and Communications www.mintc.fi enforces and supervises the licensing and the government decides on the television license fee (Jyrkiäinen, 2004).
Yleisradio Oy, YLE, is Finland´s national public service broadcasting company YLE is the third largest media company in Finland. It operates four national television channels and six radio channels complemented with 25 regional radio programs. Since 1994, the YLE has been governed by legislation of its own, and the highest decision making body is the Administrative Council appointed by Parliament.
National television programs are broadcast on four networks. There are foreign programs which are subtitled in Finnish or Swedish. Two of these are public service channels and the other two are commercial channels, which are funded through advertising. The daily reach of television is 96 percent of the population, and since 1997 there has been an increase in television viewing (Jyrkiäinen, 2004).
For print media, the Council for Mass Media evaluates complaints and oversees the ethical practices of journalists. For broadcasting, there is an Act on Broadcasting Responsibility regulatory body that supervises and regulates YLE’s programming choices (Jyrkiäinen, 2004).
Technology and the Internet
Finland became the first country in the world to have half of the population own a mobile phone in 1999. At the end of September 2007, 5.9 million mobile phones had been sold in Finland according to the Finnish Communications Regulatory Authority. Today the number of mobile phones exceeds the number of permanent fixed connections (Jyrkiäinen, 2004).
In 2007, internet broadband penetration reached 78 percent of the households. People use the internet for personal banking, updates on news and weather and reading online publications.
- Union of Journalists in Finland
- Ministry of Transport and Communication of Finland
- Finnish Periodicals Publishers’ Association
- Association of Finnish Broadcasters
- Tampere University Electronic Publications
- Finnish Newspaper Association
- Virtual Finland: Finnish Media Outlets
- EVA – Finnish Business and Policy Forum
EVA was founded in 1974 in order to create a common organization for representing the various sectors of the Finnish business community. EVA differs from most similar organizations since it is not primarily a lobbyist for business interests. EVA is actually best described as a “think tank” that identifies social phenomena and explores future challenges.
- ETLA – Research Institute of Finnish Economy
This is a private independent non-profit research organization that produces economic forecasts and carries out research in economics, business administration and social policy. By focusing on topics that are central to Finland’s international competitiveness and economic performance, ETLA provides important support to decision-making on key issues of economic and social policy.
- VATT – Government Institute for Economic Research
VATT is an applied economic research institute producing research data in support of economic policy decisions and discussion of alternative courses of action.
- UPI – Finnish Institute of International Affairs
The mission is to promote the analytical discussion of international affairs in Finland and thereby to support decision-making in the field of foreign policy. The Institute's activities are based on conducting high quality research.
- PPT – Pellervon Economic Research Institute
Twice a year, PTT publishes a short-term forecast combining international, domestic and regional developments and detailed forecasts for the agricultural, food, forest and wood sectors.
The following think tanks are associated with different sides of the Finnish political system and are influencing the Finnish ideologies and ideas about globalization and its impact on Finland.
- Alkio-opisto ja Maaseudun Sivistysliitto ry is related to the center in the Finnish political system.
- Kansan Sivistystön Liitto KSL ry is related the SAK, the biggest labor market organization in Finland.
- Kansallinen Sivistysliitto ry ja Paasikivi-Opisto is related to the right side political parties.
- Työväen Akatemia is Education Center of the Working Class.
- Työväen Sivistysliitto TSL ry is Workers' Educational Association (WEA) Finland.
- Vihreä Sivistysliitto ry is Green Cultural and Educational Center
NOTE: This guide has been compiled by the Global Alliance for Public Relations and Communication Management, For the works cited in these pages, click here.